Decision-making is a complex executive process resulting from information-based and self-reflective analyses of the situation and its challenges. Considered within the lens of game theory, models of decision making assume that individuals are rational and will want to maximize their gains. Theoretical alternatives exist, one of which postulates that individuals will prefer to minimize their regrets. However, the analysis of the probability of gain or loss is biased at different levels of information processing, notably at the perceptual, attentional, memory and heuristic levels. Individual emotional experience can also disrupt the decision-making process, which therefore cannot remain neutral and rational. The current project proposes (1) to experimentally test mathematical concepts from game theory and (2) to evaluate their relevance in understanding the cognitive processes supporting decision making. The work will begin with a literature review of this topic, from its formulation in Kahneman’s game theory to recent studies conducted in the field of cognitive and affective neurosciences. The ensuing studies will include measures of the emotional responses and physiological modulations (electrodermal conductance and cardiovascular measures) induced by decision-making processes depending on the game context.