Distributed parameter systems are described by partial differential equations.
Traditionally, the observer problem can be tackled using early or late lumping. In the first approach, the model PDEs are first discretized and a state estimation scheme is designed, while in the second, a distributed parameter observer is first developed and its equations are discretized in a second step.
Among our subjects of interest, we can site:
- sliding mode observers
- robust observers
- the use of Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) and collocation for early or late lumping.